Some functions are ‘nicer’ than others, in a way that allows us to get a new
function that ‘undoes’ what the original function did.
The purpose of this section is to make this idea precise.
We start with a higherlevel discussion of the function property, and then define onetoone functions.
A function is a special type of rule.
To qualify as a function, each input must have exactly one corresponding output.
If the function's name is $\,f\,$, then (using
function notation), the input $\,x\,$ has the corresponding unique output $\,f(x)\,$.
Here's another way to say that each input has exactly one output:
[beautiful math coming... please be patient]$$
\overbrace{\text{if two inputs are the same,}}^{\text{if }\ x = y} \qquad
\overbrace{\text{then their corresponding outputs must be the same}}^{\text{then }\ f(x) = f(y)}
$$
$$
\text{if } x = y,\ \text{then } f(x) = f(y)
$$
Think about this.
Two is the same as two.
Suppose you drop a $\,2\,$ in a box one time, and get the output $\,3\,$.
Another time, you drop a $\,2\,$ in the box, and get the output $\,5\,$.
Same input, different outputs. Not a function.
When inputs are the same, the outputs must be the same.
From a graphical point of view, this means that the graph of a function passes a vertical line test.
In the previous section, we talked about using a function box ‘backwards’.
In order to do this, we saw that each output must have exactly one corresponding input.
From a graphical point of view, this means that the graph must additionally pass a horizontal line test.
Here's another way to say that each output has exactly one input:
[beautiful math coming... please be patient]$$
\overbrace{\text{if two outputs are the same,}}^{\text{if }\ f(x) = f(y)} \qquad
\overbrace{\text{then their corresponding inputs must be the same}}^{\text{then }\ x = y}
$$
$$
\text{if } f(x) = f(y),\ \text{then } x = y
$$
Think about this.
Let $\,f\,$ be the squaring function: $\,f(x) = x^2\,$
Observe that $f(2) = f(2)$, since both $\,f(2)\,$ and $\,f(2)\,$ are the number $\,4\,$.
Thus, two outputs from the function $\,f\,$ are the same.
But, $\,2\,$ isn't the same as $\,2\,$.
For the squaring function, two outputs can be the same, but the inputs they came from can be different.
As we saw, this prevents us from using the function box ‘backwards’.
The squaring function doesn't have the special property needed to ‘undo’ what it did.
In order to use a function box $\,f\,$ ‘backwards’—in order to ‘undo’ what $\,f\,$ did—the following must be true:
whenever $\,f(x) = f(y)\,$, $x = y$.
This is called the onetoone property.
Every ‘ifthen’ sentence has a
variety of equivalent forms.
You should be able to recognize the function property and the onetoone property, no matter how they appear:
FUNCTION PROPERTY  ONETOONE PROPERTY 
if $\,x=y\,$ then $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$  if $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$ then $\,x=y\,$ 
if $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$ then $\,x\ne y\,$ this is the contrapositive of the prior row: when outputs are different, the inputs must be different 
if $\,x\ne y\,$, then $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$ this is the contrapositive of the prior row: when inputs are different, the corresponding outputs must be different 
$\,f(x)=f(y)\,$, if $\,x=y\,$  $\,x=y\,$, if $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$ 
$\,x\ne y\,$, if $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$  $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$, if $\,x\ne y\,$ 
$\,x=y\,$ implies $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$  $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$ implies $\,x=y\,$ 
$\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$ implies $\,x \ne y\,$  $\,x \ne y\,$ implies $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$ 
$\,x=y \ \Rightarrow\ f(x)=f(y)\,$  $\,f(x)=f(y) \ \Rightarrow\ x=y\,$ 
$\,f(x)\ne f(y) \ \Rightarrow\ x\ne y\,$  $\,x\ne y \ \Rightarrow\ f(x)\ne f(y)\,$ 
whenever $\,x=y\,$, $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$  whenever $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$, $\,x=y\,$ 
whenever $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$, $\,x\ne y\,$  whenever $\,x\ne y\,$, $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$ 
$\,f(x)=f(y)\,$, whenever $\,x=y\,$  $\,x=y\,$, whenever $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$ 
$\,x\ne y\,$, whenever $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$  $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$, whenever $\,x\ne y\,$ 
$\,x=y\,$ is sufficient for $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$  $\,f(x)=f(y)\,$ is sufficient for $\,x=y\,$ 
$\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$ is sufficient for $\,x\ne y\,$  $\,x\ne y\,$ is sufficient for $\,f(x)\ne f(y)\,$ 
A function $\,f\,$ is onetoone 
if and only if  whenever $\,f(x) = f(y)\,$, $x = y$. 
Since it's a function:  $x = y$  $\Rightarrow$  $f(x) = f(y)$ 
Then, it has the additional 11 property:  $f(x) = f(y)$  $\Rightarrow$  $x = y$ 
Put together, onetoone functions satisfy:  $x = y$  $\iff$  $f(x) = f(y)$ 
On this exercise, you will not key in your answer. However, you can check to see if your answer is correct. 
PROBLEM TYPES:
