Let $\,k\,$ be a real number (a scalar).
Then, $\,k\vec v\,$ is a vector.
That is, a scalar times a vector produces a vector.
In other words, a real number times a vector produces a vector.
The image below illustrates the relationship between an original vector $\,\vec v\,$ and various scaled versions:
Multiplying a vector by a positive number $\,k\,$:
 doesn't change the direction of the vector

changes the length by a factor of $\,k\,$
For example:
 if $\,k = 2\,,$ the length is doubled
 if $\,k=\frac 12\,,$ the length is halved

Multiplying a vector by a negative number $\,k\,$:
 produces a vector pointing in the opposite direction

changes the length by a factor of $\,k\,$
For example:
 if $\,k = 2\,,$ the length is doubled,
and the vector points in the opposite direction
 if $\,k=\frac 12\,,$ the length is halved,
and the vector points in the opposite direction

Multiplying any vector by the real number $\,0\,$ produces the zero vector.
For all vectors $\,\vec v\,,$
$$\cssId{s27}{\vec v\, = 1\cdot\vec v}$$
is the opposite of $\,\vec v\,.$

Finding the Size of a Scaled Vector
To find the size of a scaled vector, you multiply together two numbers:
 the absolute value (size) of the scaling constant
 the size of the original vector
Precisely, we have:
For all real numbers $\,k\,,$ and for all vectors $\,\vec v\,,$
$$
\cssId{s35}{\ k \vec v\ = k\,\cdot\,\\vec v\}
$$
Keep in mind:
 Whenever you see $\,\cdot\,,$ there must be a real number inside.
 Whenever you see $\,\\cdot\\,,$ there must be a vector inside.
For example:
$\3\vec v\$ 
$=$ 
$3\cdot\\vec v\$ 
$=$ 
$3\\vec v\$ 
  and   
$\3\vec v\$ 
$=$ 
$3\cdot\\vec v\$ 
$=$ 
$3\\vec v\$ 
So,
$\3\vec v\ = \3\vec v\\,.$
A vector and its opposite have the same length.
Adding Vectors (‘HeadtoTail Addition’)
Adding the arrow representations of vectors is done using the ‘headoffirst to tailofsecond’ rule.
This is usually abbreviated as ‘headtotail addition’.
Here's how to add $\,\vec u\,$ to $\,\vec v\,$:
 draw an arrow representing $\,\vec u\,$
 to the head of $\,\vec u\,,$ attach the tail of vector $\,\vec v\,$
 the sum $\,\vec u+\vec v\,$ goes from the tail of $\,\vec u\,$ to the head of $\,\vec v\,$
It sounds complicated when written out.
The diagram below shows how simple it really is:

Vector Addition is Commutative:

the configuration to find $\vec u + \vec v\,$ is shown in red:
head of $\,\vec u\,$ is attached to tail of $\,\vec v\,$

the configuration to find $\vec v + \vec u\,$ is shown in blue:
head of $\,\vec v\,$ is attached to tail of $\,\vec u\,$

in both cases, going from the tail of the first to the head of the second
gives the same vector (shown in black)

So, $\,\vec u + \vec v = \vec v + \vec u\,.$
This always works!
Vector addition is commutative.


Vector Addition is Associative:

the configuration to find $(\vec u + \vec v) + \vec w\,$ is shown in red:
head of $\,\vec u + \vec v\,$ is attached to tail of $\,\vec w\,$

the configuration to find $\vec u + (\vec v + \vec w)\,$ is shown in blue:
head of $\,\vec u\,$ is attached to tail of $\,\vec v + \vec w\,$

in both cases, going from
the tail of the first to the head of the last
gives the same vector (shown in green)

So, $\,(\vec u + \vec v) + \vec w = \vec u + (\vec v + \vec w)\,.$
This always works!
Vector addition is associative.
Therefore, we can write $\,\vec u + \vec v + \vec w\,$ (no parentheses) without ambiguity.

To add any number of vectors, do headtotail addition in any order.
The vector from the tail of the first to the head of the last is the vector sum.

Subtracting Vectors
To subtract a vector, just add its opposite:
$$\,\cssId{s86}{\vec u  \vec v := \vec u + (\vec v)}\,$$
(Remember that ‘$\,:=\,$’ means ‘equals, by definition’).
Other Operations with Vectors

There are different types of vectors.
The vectors we're talking about here are twodimensional vectors—vectors in a plane.
There are also threedimensional vectors—vectors in space—and lots more.
When you add vectors, they have to be vectors of the same type.

Depending on what type of vectors you're working with, there may be other
operations defined.
For example, there is a ‘dot product’ and a
‘cross product’ that you'll likely come across if you study Calculus.