The address for this web page is:
valid XHTML 1.0
On to the next lesson!


Note: There is an XHTML MarkUp Validation service at:

There is a web tutorial on XHTML at:
Click on the link above; the tutorial main page will appear in a pop-up window. Click on Learn XHTML under HTML TUTORIALS in the left-hand margin. As you work through each section of the tutorial, there is a set of questions that I want you to answer and various problems to solve (all of which are fair game for quizzes and tests). Just click on each link below:

XHTML Introduction
XHTML Syntax
XHTML Validation

XHTML Introduction

  1. What does XHTML stand for?
  2. Which version of HTML is XHTML almost identical to?
  3. When did XHTML become a web standard?
  4. Click on the links that validate the XHTML and CSS code. Copy the two validation icons for both XHTML and CSS into your local directory. You will be creating a sample XHTML page, validating it, and then adding the icons to certify that it is valid XHTML and CSS code.
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  1. What is XHTML a combination of?
  2. Under the "Why XHTML?" section, there is a example of bad HTML code. What is wrong with this code?
  3. Fill in the blanks:
    XML was designed to            data.
    HTML was designed to            data.
  4. You've seen throughout this course that browsers will attempt to make sense of bad HTML code in different ways. When browsers encounter bad HTML code, they do their best to try and "read your mind" and figure out what you really meant. What are some browsers that don't have the resources or power to try and interpret bad code?
  5. What does the phrase "backward browser compatible" mean?
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  1. There is an excellent HTML 4.01 Reference section located at: (link is no longer valid)
    Which Char Format tags have been deprecated?
    Which Blocks tags have been deprecated?
  2. What should be used instead of the <FONT> tag?
  3. I used underlining in this web page to indicate a "blank" space for filling in a word. How did I do this without using the <U> tag?
  4. How did I center text on this web page, without using the <CENTER> tag?
  5. What is the difference between the <SPAN> and <DIV> tags?
  6. Which tag should be used instead of the <S> or <STRIKE> tags?
  7. Why is underlined text confusing?
  8. What are the four most important differences between HTML and XHTML?
  9. Correct the following nesting problem(s):
    <I><B>bold italicized text</I></B>
  10. Is XML case-sensitive?
  11. Is <BR> a valid XHTML tag? How about <Br>? Why or why not?
  12. What does "tags must be closed" mean? Must a stand-alone tag (like <BR>) be "closed"? If so, how is this done?
  13. List two other stand-along tags that must be closed in XHTML.
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XHTML Syntax

  1. Is  HREF  a valid attribute name for the anchor tag in HTML? How about  Href ? Why or why not?
  2. Is  <hr width=50>  valid XHTML code? Why or why not?
  3. Give an example of "attribute minimization". Is attribute minimization allowed in XHTML? Correct your example so that it is correct XHTML code.
  4. How many allowable minimized attributes are there in HTML?
  5. Why do some of the corrected minimized attributes end in just " > " but others end in " /> "?
  6. There's a pattern to how "minimized attributes" must be written in XHTML. Suppose that  <BREAK>  is a standalone tag that can be written with a minimized attribute in HTML as  <BREAK SHORT> . Then, how would it have to be written in XHTML?
  7. Rewrite <IMG SRC="pic1.gif" NAME="cat"> so that it is correct XHTML, and will also work correctly with older browsers.
  8. Rewrite the following code so that is it correct XHTML:

    <P><CENTER>copyright 2000 Carol J.V. Fisher, All Rights Reserved</CENTER>
    <TR VALIGN=top>
    <H2>HTML LESSONS:</H2>
    1. <A href="day_1_introduction.htm">INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNET</A>
    <A HREF="day_1_introduction_nse.htm">no special effect</A>

  9. What does "mandatory" mean?
  10. Is the  <title>  tag mandatory in HTML? In XHTML?
  11. Write out the minimum XHTML document template.
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  1. How many Document Type Definitions are there?
  2. What are the three XHTML Document Type Definitions?
  3. What is the most common XHTML Document Type Definition?
  4. Write out the exact code for the transitional XHTML Document Type Definition. (You do NOT need to memorize this line! However, you must have it available for your XHTML web pages.)
  5. Where should the  <!DOCTYPE  ...>  statement go?
  6. Suppose you want to support browsers that don't understand Cascading Style Sheet information. Which Document Type Definition should you use?
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XHTML HowTo and XHTML Validation

  1. Use SimpleText to create an XHTML document named "test_XHTML.htm" and save it in your own personal filespace. It should have the content indicated below, except corrected so that it is correct XHTML. Then, try and run it through the XHTML Validator.

    <H1>My first test of XHTML!!!</H1>
    (put your name here)

  2. You may get an error:

    "I was not able to extract a character encoding labeling from any of the valid sources for such information. Without encoding information it is impossible to validate the document."

    If so, add the following line inside your head container and try again:

    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" />

  3. When your code passes, insert the "valid XHTML" icon on your page, and show me the result for today's Quick Quiz!
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On to the next lesson!
© 2001 Carol J.V. Fisher    All Rights Reserved